Amèrica del Nort

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Amèrica del Nort
Amèrica del Nord
Superfície 24.709.000 km²
Població

[1]

Densitat 22,9/km²
Estats 23
Gentilici Nort-americà, nort-americana
Famílies llingüístiques Indoeuropees
Ameríndies
Ciutats més grans Ciutat de Mèxic, Nova York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Miami, Filadèlfia, Toronto, Dallas - Fort Worth, Boston, Houston
Zona horària De UTC-10 (Alaska) a UTC (Groenlàndia)

L'Amèrica del Nort és un subcontinent d'Amèrica, que s'estén, geopolíticament, des d'Alaska i Groenlàndia al nort, fins la frontera de Mèxic en Guatemala i Belize al sur. El subcontinent llimita al nort en l'oceà Glacial Àrtic, i al sur en el subcontinent centreamericà. En atres models continentals, com ara el model angloparlant, Amèrica del Nort és un continent que s'estén des d'Alaska fins a l'istme de Panamà, incloent-hi les Antilles.

Amèrica boreal és un sinònim, pero este concepte sovint a soles inclou els Estats Units i Canadà, excloent la zona de Mèxic la qual de vegades es considera dins l'Amèrica Central.[2]

Referències[editar]

  1. Llista de continents per població [1]
  2. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y1997S/y1997s15.htm

Bibliografia[editar]

  • Sobre els amerindis nord-americans:
    • Aliki; Aliki, illus. Corn is Maize: The Gift of the Indians. Nova York, NY: Harper C Collins; 1986
    • Ashabranner, Brent; Conklin, Paul: To Live in Two Worlds: American Indian Youth Today. Nova York: Dodd Mead; 1984
    • Brafford, C. J.; Thom, Laine: Dancing Colors: Paths of Native American Women. San Francisco: Chronicle Books; 1992
    • Brown, Fern G.: American Indian Science: A New Look at Old Cultures. Twenty-First Century Books/Henry Holt and Co. 1997
    • DeCesare, Ruth: Myth, Music and Dance of the American Indian. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing Co., Inc.; 1988
    • Fichter, George S.: American Indian Music and Musical Instruments. Nova York: David McKay Co.; 1978
    • Hausman, Gerald: Turtle Island Alphabet: A Lexicon of Native American Symbols and Culture. Nova York: St. Martin's Press; 1992
    • Haviland, Virginia ed.; Strugnell, Ann: North American Legends. Nova York: Philomel Books; 1979
    • Hutchins, Alma R.: Indian Herbology of North America. 3a. edició. Boston: Shambala Publications Inc.; 1991
    • Jacobson, Daniel: Indians of North America. Nova York: Franklin Watts; 1983
    • Liptak, Karen: North American Indian Survival Skills. Nova York: Franklin Watts; 1990
    • Liptak, Karen: North American Indian Medicine People. Nova York: Franklin Watts; 1990
    • Liptak, Karen: North American Indian Tribal Chiefs. Nova York: Franklin Watts; 1992
    • Liptak, Karen: North American Indian Sign Language. Nova York: Franklin Watts; 1992
    • Maestro, Betsy i Maestro, Giulio: The Discovery of the Americas. Nova York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books; 1991
    • Mails, Thomas E.: Secret Native American Pathways: A Guide to Inner Peace. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Council Oaks Books; 1988
    • Mather, Christine: Native America: Arts, Traditions, and Celebrations. Nova York: Clarkson Potter Publishers; 1990
    • Matthiessen, Peter: Indian Country. Nova York: Penguin Books; 1984
    • McLuhan, T. C.: Touch the Earth: A Self-Portrait of Indian Existence. Nova York: Simon and Schuster; 1971
    • Nabokov, Peter ed.: Native American Testimony: A Chronicle of Indian-White Relations from Prophecy to the Present, 1492-1992. Nova York: Viking; 1991
    • Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert: Native American Architecture. Nova York: Oxford University Press; 1989
    • Niethammer, Carolyn: Daughters of the Earth: The Lives and Legends of American Indian Women. Nova York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.; 1977.
    • Niethammer, Carolyn; Thomson, Jenean: American Indian Food and Lore. Nova York: Collier Books; 1974.
    • Tannenbaum, Beulah; Tannenbaum, Harold: Science of the Early American Indians. Nova York: Franklin Watts; 1988.
    • Thomas, David Hurst, et al; Ballantine, Betty, Ballantine, Ian, eds.: The Native Americans: An Illustrated History. Atlanta: Turner Publishing, Inc.; 1993.
    • Weiss, Malcolm E.; McFadden, Eliza: Sky Watchers of Ages Past. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1982.
    • Whitney, Alex: Sports and Games the Indians Gave Us. Nova York: David McKay Co., Inc.; 1977.
    • Wolfson, Evelyn; Hewitson, Jennifer: From the Earth to Beyond the Sky: Native American Medicine. Nova York: Houghton Mifflin; 1993.
    • Wood, Marian: Ancient America: Cultural Atlas for Young People. Nova York: Facts on File; 1990.
    • Wood, Marion. D'Ottavi, Francesca: Myths and Civilization of the Native Americans. Peter Bedrick Books, 1998.
  • Sobre mineria:
    • Basalla, George: The Evolution of Technology. Nova York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
    • Brown, Ronald C.: Hard Rock Miners: The Intermountain West, 1860-1920. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1979.
    • Christiansen, Paige W.: The Story of Mining in New Mexico. New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources, Scenic Trips to the Geological Past Núm. 12. Socorro: University of New Mexico Press, 1974.
    • Dix, Keith: What's a Coal Miner to Do? The Mechanization of Coal Mining. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1988.
    • Eller, Ronald D. Miners: Millhands, and Mountaineers, Industrialization of the Appalachian South, 1880-1930. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1982.
    • Elliott, Russell R.: Nevada's Twentieth-Century Mining Boom, Tonopah, Goldfield, Ely. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1966.
    • Fatout, Paul: Meadow Lake, Gold Town. 1969. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, Bison Books, 1974.
    • Fell, James E., Jr.: Ores to Metals, The Rocky Mountain Smelting Industry. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.
    • Francaviglia, Richard V.: Hard Places. Reading the Landscapes of America's Historic Mining Districts. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1992.
    • Greever, William S.: The Bonanza West, the Story of the Western Mining Rushes, 1848-1900. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.
    • Hardesty, Don L.: The Archeology of Mining and Miners: A View from the Silver State. Special Publication Series, Núm. 6. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The Society for Historical Archeology, 1988.
    • Hogan, Richard: Class and Community in Frontier Colorado. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1990.
    • Holliday, J.S.: The World Rushed In, the California Gold Rush Experience. Nova York: Simon and Schuster, 1981.
    • Hunt, William R.: North of 53, the Wild Days of the Alaska - Yukon Mining Frontier. Nova York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1974.
    • Jackson, W. Turrentine: Treasure Hill, Portrait of a Silver Mining Camp. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1963.
    • King, Joseph E.: A Mine to Make a Mine: Financing the Colorado Mining Industry, 1859-1902. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1977.
    • Livingston-Little, D. E.: An Economic History of North Idaho, 1800 - 1900. Los Angeles: Journal of the West, 1965.
    • Marcosson, Isaac F.: Metal Magic, the Story of the American Smelting & Refining Company. Nova York: Farrar, Straus and Company, 1949.
    • Mulholland, James A.: A History of Metals in Colonial America. University, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1981.
    • Paul, Rodman W.: California Gold, the Beginning of Mining in the Far West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, A Bison Book, 1947.
    • Ringholtz, Raye C.: Uranium Frenzy, Boom and Bust on the Colorado Plateau. Nova York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1989.
    • Smith, Duane A.: Mining America, The Industry and the Environment, 1800-1980. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1987.
    • Temin, Peter: Iron and Steel in Nineteenth-Century America: An Economic Inquiry. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1964.
    • Wallace, Anthony F. C.: St. Clair, A Nineteenth-Century Coal Town's Experience with a Disaster-Prone Industry. Ithaca, Nova York: Cornell University Press, 1988.
    • Wyman, Mark: Hard Rock Epic, Western Miners in the Industrial Revolution, 1860-1910. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.
    • Young, Otis E., Jr.: Western Mining, an Informal Account of Precious Metal Prospecting, Placering, Lode Mining, and Milling on the American Frontier from Spanish Times to 1893. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.
  • Sobre paleontologia:
    • Cloud, P. E., 1973: Possible stratotype sequences for the basal Paleozoic in North America: American Journal of Science, v. 273, p. 193-206.
    • Cope, E. D., 1870: Synopsis of the extinct Batrachia, Reptilia, and Aves of North America: American Philosophical Society Transactions, n.s., v. 14, p. 1-252.
    • Galton, P. M., 1982: Elaphrosaurus, an ornithomimid dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of North America and Africa: Palontologische Zeitschrift, v. 56, p. 265-275.
    • Hallam, A., 1977: Secular changes in marine inundation of USSR and North America during the Phanerozoic: Nature, v. 269, p. 769-772.
    • Lehman, T. M., 1987: Late Maastrichtian paleoenvironments and dinosaur biogeography in the western interior of North America: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 60, p. 189-217.
    • Rigby, J. K., 1987: The Last of the North American Dinosaurs, a Czerkas, S. J., i Olson, E. C., eds., Dinosaurs Past and Present, II: Los Angeles, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, p. 119-135.
    • Walcott, C. D., 1891: The North American Continent During Cambrian Time, in Twelfth Annual Report, United States Geological Survey: Washington DC, United States Geological Survey, p. 523-568.
  • Sobre l'etnobotànica:
    • Abrams, L. 1940 - 1960: An Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States, Washington, Oregon and California. Stanford Univ. Press, 4 Vols.
    • Adovasio, J. M. 1974: Prehistoric North American Basketry. Nevada State Mus. Anthropological Papers #16.
    • Adrosko, R. J. 1968. Natural Dyes in the United States. Natl. Mus. Bull. 281. Smithsonian Inst., Washington DC.
    • Alcocer, Gabriel V. 1905: Catalogo de los frutos comestibles mexicanos. Mex. Mus. Nac. An. (ser. 2) 2: 413-488.
    • Aller, Wilma. 1954: Aboriginal food utilization of vegetation by the Indian of the Great Lakes Region as recorded in the Jesuit relations. Wisconsin Archaeologist 35(3): 59-73.
    • Amsden, C. A: Navaho Weaving, Its technic and History. 262 pp. Southwest Museum.
    • Anderson, J. P. 1939: Plants used by the Eskimo of the Northern Bering Sea & Arctic Regions of Alaska. Amer. J. Bot. 26(9): 714-716.
    • Anònim. 1884 - 1885: Drugs and Medicines of North America. Bull. Lloyd Library, Cincinnati. Núm. 28-30. pp. 1-303.
    • Anònim. 1886: Drugs and Medicines of North America. Bull. Lloyd Library, Cincinnati. 31: 1-162.
    • Barrow, Mark V., Jerry D. Niswander, & Robert Fortune. 1972: Health and Disease of American Indians North of Mexico. A Bibliography, 1800 - 1969. University of Florida Press, Gainsville, xiv, 148 pp.
    • Beardsley, G. 1939 (1940). The groundnut as used by the Indians of Eastern North America. Papers of the Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts & Lett. 25(4):507-515.
    • Bell, W. H. & E. F. Castetter. 1937: The utilization of mesquite and screwbean by the aborigines in the American southwest. Univ. New Mexico Bull. 314, Biol. Series. 5(2):1-55.
    • Bigelow, Jacob. 1817 - 1820: American Medical Botany, Being a collection of the native medicinal plants of the United States.
    • Burnaby, Rev. Andrew 1798: Travels through the Middle Settlements in North America. Londres.
    • Carr, L. 1895: The food of the North American Indians. Lend a Hand. 15: 347-354.
    • Havard, Valery. 1895: The food plants of the North American Indians. Torrey Bot. Club Bul. 22: 98-123.
    • Jones, V. H. 1967: A list of selected works illustrative of the literature concerning the ethnobotany of the Indians of North America. Bibliography. Mimeo. 9pp.
    • Linton, R. 1924. Use of Tobacco Among the North American Indians. Field Mus. Natural History Anthropological Leaflet 15. 27pp.
    • Lloyd, John U. & C. G. Lloyd 1930 - 1931: Drugs and Medicines of North America. Lloyd Library, Bulls. 29, 30, 31. Reproduction Series Núm. 9.
    • McLeod, W. C. 1930: The chewing of tobacco in southeastern North America. Amer. Anthrop. 32: 574-575.
    • Mahr, A. C. 1951: Materia medica and therapy among the North American Forest Indians. Ohio State Archaeol. & Hist. Quart. 60(4): 331-354.
    • Maisch, J. M. 1890: Notes on Some North American Medicinal plants. Amer. J. Pharm. 62: 330-332.
    • Palmer, E. 1871: Food products of the North American Indians. U. S. Commr. Agri. Rep’t 1870: 404-428.
    • Wheat, J. B. 1971: Lifeways of early man in North America. Arctic Anthropology. 8(2): 22-31.
    • Youngken, H. W. 1924 - 1925: Drugs of the North American Indians. Amer. J. Parmacy. 96: 489-502; 97: 257-271.
  • Sobre la fauna:
    • Brodhead, Michael J.: "The United States Army Signal Service and Natural History in Alaska, 1874 -1883." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 86 (primavera de 1995): 72-82.
    • Elias, Scott A.: The Ice Age History of Alaskan National Parks . Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995.
    • Evans, Howard Ensign. Pioneer Naturalists: The Discovery and Naming of North American Plants and Animals. Nova York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1993.
    • Evenden, Matthew D.: "The Laborers of Nature: Economic Ornithology and the Role of Birds as Agents of Biological Pest Control in North American Agriculture, ca. 1880 - 1930." Forest & Conservation History 39 (octubre de 1995): 172-183.
    • Fleharty, Eugene D.: Wild Animals and Settlers on the Great Plains . Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.
    • Flores, Dan: "Bison Ecology and Bison Diplomacy: The Southern Plains from 1800 to 1850." Journal of American History 78 (setembre de 1991): 465-485.
    • Hodgson, Bryan: "Buffalo: Back Home on the Range." National Geographic 186, núm. 5 (novembre de 1994): 64-90.
    • Luoma, Jon R.: "Back Home on the Range" (Dubious Future for the American Bison's Habitat). Audubon 95, núm. 2 (març/abril de 1993): 46-53.
    • Manning, Richard: Grasslands: The History, Biology, Politics, and Promise of the American Prairie. Nova York: Viking, 1995.
    • Raventon, Edward: Island in the Plains: A Black Hills Natural History. Boulder: Johnson Books, 1994
    • Wilkinson, Todd: "Back to the Badlands: Black-footed Ferrets, Once Considered Extinct, Are Being Reintroduced..." National Parks 68, núm. 11-12 (novembre/decembre de 1994): 38-43.
    • Williams, Ted: "Torch of the Yankee Salmon" (Restoring Atlantic Salmon to New England). Audubon 97, núm. 3 (maig i juny de 1995): 28-34.
  • Sobre l'agricultura:
    • Bidwell, Percy Wells: Rural Economy in New England at the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century . Clifton: A.M. Kelley, 1972.
    • Black, John D.: The Rural Economy of New England: A Regional Study. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950
    • Day, Clarence A.: A History of Maine Agriculture, 1604-1860. University of Maine Studies, núm. 68. Orono: University of Maine Press, 1954
    • Hargreaves, Mary Wilma M.: Dry Farming in the Northern Great Plains, 1900-1925. 1957
    • Malin, James C.: The Grassland of North America: Prolegomena to Its History. Lawrence, KS: 1948
    • Malin, James: Winter Wheat in the Golden Belt of Kansas. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1944
    • Rosenberg, Norman J.: "Adaptations to Adversity: Agriculture, Climate and the Great Plains of North America." Great Plains Quarterly 6, núm. 3 (estiu de 1986): 202-217.
    • Ulrich, Hugh: Losing Ground: Agricultural Policy and the Decline of the American Farm. Xicago: Chicago Review Press, 1989
    • Wallace, Henry A.: Irrigation Frontier: On the Trail of the Corn-Belt Farmer. Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1909
  • Sobre la cultura:
    • Matthews, Anne: Where the Buffalo Roam. Nova York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1992
    • Olson, Steven: The Prairie in Nineteenth-Century American Poetry. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994
    • Popper, Frank J. i Deborah E. Popper: "The Reinvention of the American Frontier." Amicus (estiu de 1991): 4-7.
    • Unger, Douglas: Leaving the Land. Nova York: Ballantine Books, 1984
  • Sobre la industrialització:
    • Case, Earl Clark: The Valley of East Tennessee: The Adjustment of Industry to Natural Environment , Tennessee. División of Geology Bulletin 36 . Nashville, Tennessee, 1925
    • Owens, Harry P.: Steamboats and the Cotton Economy: River Trade in the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1990

Vínculs externs[editar]